This dissertation is about measured group theory, sofic entropy and operator algebras. More precisely, we will study actions of groups on probability spaces, some fundamental properties of their sofic entropy (for countable groups), their full groups (for Polish groups) and the amenable subalgebras of von Neumann algebras associated with hyperbolic groups and lattices of Lie groups. This dissertation is composed of three parts.
The first part is devoted to the study of sofic entropy of profinite actions. Sofic entropy is an invariant for actions of sofic groups defined by L. Bowen that generalize Kolmogorov's entropy. The definition of sofic entropy makes use of a fixed sofic approximation of the group. We will show that the sofic entropy of profinite actions does depend on the chosen sofic approximation for free groups and some lattices of Lie groups.
The second part is based on a joint work with François Le Maître. The content of this part is based on a prepublication in which we generalize the notion of full group to probability measure preserving actions of Polish groups, and in particular, of locally compact groups. We define a Polish topology on these full groups and we study their basic topological properties, such as the topological rank and the density of aperiodic elements.
The third part is based on a joint work with Rémi Boutonnet. The content of this part is based on two prepublications in which we try to understand when the von Neumann algebra of a maximal amenable subgroup of a countable group is itself maximal amenable. We solve the question for hyperbolic and relatively hyperbolic groups using techniques due to Popa. With different techniques, we will then present a dynamical criterion which allow us to answer the question for some amenable subgroups of lattices of Lie groups of higher rank.